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ترجمه مقاله کامپیوتر | مشکلات کار کردن زیاد با کامپیوتر

امروز می خواهیم در مورد مشکلاتی که کار با کامپیوتر به صورت افراطی در بلند مدت می تواند ایجاد کند صحبت کنیم .قسمت اعظم این بحث ما مربوط به مشکلات جسمی می شود.ابتدا  کلیاتی درباره موضوع خواهیم گفت و در مطالب آتی مطالب ریزتری را لابلای مطالب قبلی اضافه می کنیم.کمی هم در مورد چگونگی پیشگیری  صحبت می کنیم و سعی بر این است که از نوشتن مطالب آناتومی خودداری کنم تا بیشتر به اصل قضیه بپردازیم.

به دلیل استفاده افراطی از کامپیوتر در محل کار و در منازل ، یکسری مشکلات که بدان مشکلات سلامتی مربوط به کامپیوتر گفته می شود ، در حال افزایش هست.این مشکلات را می توانیم به سه دسته کلی تقسیم کنیم  :

  1. مشکلات مربوط به بینایی
  2. مشکلات ماهیچه ای – اسکلتی
  3. مشکلات ناشی از استرس های ذهنی

ترجمه مقاله کامپیوتر | مشکلات کار کردن زیاد با کامپیوتر

شما باید کاملا خودتون و محیط اطرافتون را بشناسین. ۷ موردی که به شما در درک و پیشگیری از مشکلات کمک می کنند  را با کلمه (compute) مشخص می کنیم که حروف ابتدای این ۷  کلمه هستند :

Contact stress  

Organisation

 Monotony

 Posture

 Uncomfortable environment

Tetchiness

 Exercise 

Contact stress

ترجمه مقاله کامپیوتر | مشکلات کار کردن زیاد با کامپیوتر

این بخش مرتبط با فشاری است که تمام قسمت های بدن به خاطر داشتن یک پوزیشن ثابت در هنگام کار متحمل می شوند.

در این رابطه می توان به مشکلات مربوط به مچ و دست اشاره کرد.به طور مثال کار با موس برای طولانی مدت می تواند باعث کشش رباطها ی پشت دست و مچ شود. در اثر تکرار زیاد حرکات دست در طول زمان ، با فشار تایپ کردن ، خم شدن مچ دست در استفاده از صفحه کلید و … بوجود بیاد.

علاوه بر راه هایی که برای پیشگیری از بوجود آمدن این سری از مشکلات وجود دارد ، باید در صورت پیدا شدن مشکل ، کار را متوقف کرده و پیگیری پزشکی انجام شود ، چون هر چه دیرتر به درمان بپردازیم ، درمان مشکل سخت تر شده و از طب ورزشی گاهی به جراحی هم ختم می شود.

ترجمه مقاله کامپیوتر | مشکلات کار کردن زیاد با کامپیوتر

Carpal tunnel syndrome

یک حالت دردناک که بی حسی در یک یا هر دو دست اتفاق می افتد و آسان ترین کارها باعث رنجش و ایجاد درد در فرد می گردد و فرد از انجام فعالیتهای کاری روزانه اش ناتوان می گردد.

درمان در مراحل اولیه : استراحت ، گرم کردن ، بستن و ثابت نگه داشتن مچ

ترجمه مقاله کامپیوتر | مشکلات کار کردن زیاد با کامپیوتر

Organization

در مورد الگوی انجام کارها فکر کنید.

آیا شما دائما کارهای تکرار شونده انجام می دهید ؟

در اینصورت سعی کنید  تنوع کاری بوجود آورید .اصلا می شود گفت یکی از دلایل وجود ساعات خوردن چای و ناهار همینه J

در این ساعات از جایتان بلند شوید ، بروید بیرون ، قدم بزنید و هوای تاره تنفس کنید.

قبل از اینکه کار اضافی می خواهید انجام دهید یا اضافه کار می خواهید بایستید ، خوب فکر کنید

در ادامه به مواد دیگر در این رابطه اشاره خواهیم کرد .

ترجمه مقاله کامپیوتر | مشکلات کار کردن زیاد با کامپیوتر

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ABSTRACT This paper concentrates on a software prepared as a series of Health Education for K8 students in Turkey. Bearing in mind that healthy mind rests in a healthy body, the researchers prepared a series of software on different aspects of health. This specific software tries to donate the K8 students with healthy use of computers in everyday life. Thus, the software includes the ideals in physical environment, ergonomy and the health problems in computer setting. Keywords: Health Education, Computers and Software K-8.

INTRODUCTION

We all thought technology would make our lives easier. Indeed they did, they have become smaller, easier to use and fast. With the introduction of WWW, computers have be come a center of attention (Aarogya, 2004). However, the health problems introduced with computers has been underrated. Research tell us that more than 10 million people in USA suffer from computer related health problems, ranging from eyestrain to disabling hand and wrist injuries (LOBP, 2006). Since living with computers is a lifestyle of its own, individuals must be donated with the necessary knowledge to remain healthy in computer settings.

Using computer for long periods causes important and permanent disorders on young children. There is an important increase in the rate of children applying clinics due to disturbances related to using computer. Current statistics reveal that over twenty children apply to clinics for help every month in Turkey. Although children were playing physically active games in past, today they sit for hours and play computer games for long periods. It is obviously important that children, too, use computers. However playing computer games, and using computers for long periods have the risk of catching permanent illnesses (Kirazh, 2002). Computer-related health problems are caused by improper use and lack of knowledge about “safe computing techniques”. It is therefore important to educate the computer users on these health issues. It is impossible to not to use the opportunities of computer today. So for a healthy use of computer some questions need to be answered by computer users, “How could an ergonomical work environment be arranged for computer use?”, “What kind of health problemsappearfor the peoplewho do not use computers ergonomically?”, “What are the requirements for a healthy computer use?”, “What kind of exercise could be done to prevent disorders due to computer use?” (Keser, 2005). Although there are courses that include muscular and skeleton systems and exercise in primary school curriculum in Turkey, there is no subject on computer health and requirements for using computer (MEB, 2006). Since computers are used widely in Turkish K8 system, it is a must that primary school students be donated with the necessary skillsto use the computers efficiently.

Common Computer-RelatedHealth

Problems Healthy computer use is one of major concerns of information era. We all know the importance of understanding users and their environment when we design software. Before designing the software we really need to start our analyses from scratch in a complex, dynamic environment of computer use. Indeed, it is hard to imagine a less promising educational. strategy for young children than emphasizing abstract thinking, fueled by powerful computers. Research findings across many scientific disciplines strongly suggests that later intellectual development is rooted in rich childhood experiences that combine healthy emotional relationships, physical engagement with the real world, and the exercise of imagination in self-generated play and in the arts. Intense use of computers can distract children and adults from these essential experiences. So that is why healthy computer use is important in childhood and why we focus on K8 (Gosbee & Ritchie, 1997;HealthyChildren, 1997). Many health concerns can be associated with intense computer use. Parents, teachers and adults must know about the children’s cognitive psycho-social and physical development process. They must arrange children’s computer use and appropriate settings. If the parents do not pay attention to computer use of their children, some hazards will be waiting for them. The most common health effects associated with using a computer are muscular skeletal discomfort, eye fatigue, and Repetitive Stress Injuries (RSI). Repetitive Strain Injury is caused by repetitive movements, awkward working positions, inadequate rest breaks and poor design of equipment. Specific types of RSI are tenosynovitis inflammation of the tendon sheath in hands, wrists and arms), writer’s cramp and tennis elbow. The symptoms are pain or discomfort in the upper limbs, tingling sensations, restricted joint movement (particularly in,the wrists) and poor grip. As with any activity that involves sitting for long periods of time, using a computer can make the muscles sore and stiff. These effects can be minimized by setting up the workstation carefully, by taking frequent breaks to rest tired muscles, and by doing some simple stretching exercises to relieve strain. Much of the muscle soreness, eye fatigue, and other discomforts and injuries can occur from other activities. In fact, misuse of the same muscles and joints during multiple activities can make the problem worse. For example, if someone engage in non-work activities that may involve repetitive stress on the wrist – such as playing the piano – and also use computer keyboard improperly; likelihood of developing wrist problems may be increased. Preventing health problems is a multi-faceted task that requires careful attention to the way we use the body every day. Repetitive Stress Injuries (RSls) also known as Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTDs) can occur when a certain muscle, joint, or tendon is repeatedly overused and forced into an unnatural position. The exact amount of stress that will cause RSI is still not known, but in addition to awkward postures, factors such as the amount of repetition, force used in the activity, and the individual’s physiology and lifestyle may affect the creation of RSI. RSIs did not suddenly arise with computer use; tennis elbow and writer’s cramp are two well-known RSIs. Pianists have frequently suffered from RSls, sometimes terminating very promising careers. One RSI discussed more often today, however, is a wrist problem called Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS). It may be caused or aggravated by improper use of computer keyboards. This nerve disorder results from excessive pressure on the median nerve as it passes through the wrist to the hand. We offer advice on setting up the chair, desk, keyboard, and other parts of computer workstation. Proper workstation ergonomics will help to minimize the possibility of developing RSI. The effects of repetitive movements associated with using a computer can be compounded by other work or leisure activities to produce or aggravate physical problems, so proper use of computer system must be considered as just one element, an important one, of a healthy lifestyle. No one can guarantee that someone will not have problems even when he/she follow the most expert advice on using computer equipment. A person should always check with a qualified health specialist if muscle, joint, or eye problems occur (FEOS&HP, 2006; Dennerlein et. al, 2002; UBIS, 2000). When we mention a software design in any subject, it is essential that we need a systems approach.Computer related health problems require understanding of many interdependent systems which are especially related to environmental factors. So we will explain these settings here. Our software de-veloped for healthy computer use, “Computers and Your Healthy” is organized under an acronym COMPUTE which is developed by Kennard (Kennard, 2004). COMPUTE standsfor;

Contact stress

Organisation

Monotony Posture

Uncomfortable environment

Tetchiness

Exercise

Contact Stress

One of the common and important problems are encountered are wrist and hand problems called contact stress. In general, contact stress refers to the pressure that is put on different parts of the body whilst in a relatively fixed position. For example, ‘floating’ the hand. over the mouse for long periods leads to strain on the ligaments in the back of the hand and the wrist. Mostly, health problems may occur as a result of high repetition of hand movements, forceful typing, or having bent wrists whilst using the keyboard. One of them is Carpal tunnel syndrome which is a painful condition that affects the wrists and hands following pressure to the median nerve. Numbness may also be experienced in one or both hands and even the simplest of tasks involvingthe hands becomes a painful and sometimes impossible activity. Attention to posture, light keyboard actions and mouse movement and simple regular exercise can help to prevent problems. If problems arise it is important to stop and seek medical assistance. Contact stress can occur either internally or externally. Internal stress occurs when a tendon, nerve, or blood vessel is stretched or bent around a bone or tendon. External contact stress .~ occurs when part of your body rubs against a componentof the workstation,such asthe edge of the desk. Nerves may be irritated or blood vessels be constricted as a result. . A kid can experience contact stress to her forearms when someone rest them on the leading edges of work tables or, if the nerves in the forearm are affected, the fmgers and hands may tingle and feel numb, similar to the feeling when she hit her “funny bone”. A kid may experience pain and numbnessin your legs if blood circulation is cut off by contact with the leading edge of a chair Her forearms and wrists can be affected if wrist rests have sharp, hard leading edges. Tendons can be damaged when repetitive finger motion tasks are performed with a bent wrist (Kennard, 2004; USDL, 2006).

Organization Organization can help preventing computer-related health problems. Think about the nature and pattern of the work. If it is necessary to undertake repetitive tasks with the computer try, where possible, vary. these with other activities. Take small breaks. It is essential no to sit at the computer during breaks; much better to get the circulation going and step out for some fresh air. Think carefully before accepting overtime or agreeing to take on extra work, or forcing the pace to try and fInish the work you have. Many computer workstation tasks are highly repetitive. A kid may perform the same motions repeatedly at a fast pace and with little variation. When motions are isolated and repeated frequently for prolonged periods, there may be inadequate time for the muscles and tendons to recover. Combining repetitive tasks with factors such as awkward postures and force may increase the risk of injury. Computers require little task variation. Old typing activities, such as adding paper or mechanically advancing pages, have been reduced or eliminate-.d.Users can stay in their chairs and type or perform mouse work for an almost unlimited amount of time. Here, the hazard may be greater because the motions are often concentrated in only a few fingers of one hand. A computer operator may remain in essentially the same posture for an entire shift. This forces a few isolated muscles to repeatedly activate to accomplish a task such as holding the head up or focusing on a computer screen. A poorly designed workstation may cause the kid to repeatedly reach to use a mouse or answer the phone. This can fatigue the muscles of the shoulder and irritate the tendons.

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